Above the clouds on the South Downs

This is not really to do with ecology, and certainly not based in Grantham, so you’ll have to forgive me straying off message!

We went down to stay on a campsite at the base of the South Downs in the campervan just before New Years. We set off in dense fog which, but for a few breaks, persisted all the way down the country. We arrived an hour before sunset, pulled on coats and boots and headed off up the hillside near Ditchling Beacon in the optimistic hope that we could climb up above the pea-souper which had enveloped us all day. Optimistic but not expectant, we were rewarded for our efforts!

Walking up the track was like ascending in an aeroplane on an overcast day, when you break through to find that it’s a sunny day above the clouds. This is effectively the same thing – the clouds in this case are lying over the land due to a temperature difference known as an ‘inversion’ – when there is colder air below and warmer air above meaning that the cloud becomes trapped close to the land. As well as the temperature inversion, you need other conditions such as lack of precipitation and little or no wind to maintain this. This is an excellent blog post to explain more about cloud inversions, and how, when and where to catch them!

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The view just as we rose above the fog which filled the valley before us but left our position and the wooded hillside opposite clear. I love how the cloud extends out north across Sussex as far as the eye can see.
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The fog passing through the trees at the point where the land lifted clear.
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The view from the top looking out towards the coast with Brighton nestled somewhere below. The sheep would often stand and stare out, making it difficult not to imagine that they were appreciating the view as well!
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The view out across the downs, with fog swirling up the valleys and flocks of birds dotting the sky on their way home to roost.
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A way marker for the South Downs Way against the afterglow of a sunset we never expected to witness after a day spent in the damp darkness of a fog-covered countryside.

What inspired this optimism was another recent experience – just before Christmas we were staying in Freiburg and left the city on a murky foggy day to catch a cablecar to 1000m up. We found an incredible sight awaiting us – not only were we above a thick layer of cloud but there was a further layer of cloud above us meaning that the setting sun lit both layers in one of the most magical experiences I have ever witnessed – a few photographs below to give you an idea!

 

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Frosted seedheads

We had a wonderful hard frost just after Christmas so I took the opportunity to get out in the morning sunshine to take a few photos!

The frost serves to outline these seed heads, making them stand out against the background but also helping to highlight the structure which is best appreciated at this time of year when the leaves and flowers have fallen.

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These willowherb plants were growing in the churchyard. Each of the long, linear seed heads which cap the stem was originally filled with feathery seeds which float like a dandelion clocks when the pods split open and release them to the breeze.
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Many grass seed heads are fairly transient, disappearing as winter progresses but the seed heads of cock’s foot can remain on the stem for a long time after the seeds have been released.
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The spiky seed heads of burdock were slowly thawing where the sun caught them one one side whilst the frost remained clinging to the other. The hooked ends of the seedheads are prefect for catching onto the fur of passing animals which then transfer the seeds to new habitat.
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The seed heads of one of the umbellifers – known commonly as the carrot family. You can see the umbel structure which gives this family its name – the flowers are borne on a cluster of stems, each of which radiate from a single point. It’s easy to see the comparison with the ribs of an umbrella in these frosted remains.
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The seed heads of black knapweed. These are a member of the compositae family along with the burdock pictured above.

2016 in trees

Looking back through the photographs I’ve taken in 2016, it’s striking how many trees there are! As with the small things such as wildflower ‘weeds’, it’s easy to take for granted these enormous beings which grow amongst us. The sheer scale of a mature oak or beech is far beyond our magnitude of experience, as is the timescale they can span which numbers many of our lifetimes combined.

Here are just a few of my favourite encounters from 2016.

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These snow-lined branches were in the mountains above Freiburg at the beginning of the year – we took the cablecar from the grey countryside below up into a winter wonderland of freshly fallen snow. I liked the way that the snow outlines the curved architecture of the branches.
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Part of my job involes climbing trees to inspect them for roosting bat potential. On my way up this field-edge tree, the sun came out and I couldn’t resist a quick shadow-selfie!
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This photograph was taken for the Woodland Trust – this is one of the Verdun Oaks which grew from acorns brought back from Verdun after the First World War and planted in towns and cities as a commemoration to the fallen. In the background is Lichfield Cathedral. The Woodland Trust are tracing these trees as part of the commemoration of the First World War – you can read more about these pieces of living history on their website here.
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I spotted this tree sillouetted against the sunrise on a drive across to Norfolk one morning and had to stop off to get a photograph. The tree was in the middle of a field which was not publically accessible, so I only have the shape to go off but this looks like a poplar tree to me – perhaps a black poplar?
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This is the view up to the canopy at Treswell Wood in North Nottinghamshire. This is a Notts Wildlife Trust site which has a precominantly ash canopy. Unfortunately, Ash Dieback was confirmed in one corner of the woodland and targetted trees were felled in an effort to stop the disease spreading. Ash trees are a characteristic part of the British Countryside and one of the most common species in our landscape – it would be a tragedy if they were to go the way of the English Elm.
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I love being out in the countryside at night – we spent much of the summer watching trees to survey for emerging bats so this scene feels very familiar to me. I took a walk out past this tree near Harlaxton one night when the skies were very clear to capture a starlapse with the North Star centred above the dead crown of this oak.
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This is a slightly boosted photograph in terms of colour saturation, but is otherwise untouched. This was a starlapse of a meadow oak but the quirks of lighting led to this rather psycadelic image. The tree and the hillside to the left were occasionally lit by car headlights from the road behind me, and the background cloud was illuminated by the light pollution of Nottingham in the distance. Not your typical tree image but I rather liked the effect!
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These beautiful old beech trees line a trackway which forms part of the Laurie Lee Wildlife Way in Slad. I love trackways which are overarched by tree canopies, and I especially like the idea that Laurie would have walked these tracks. The book Cider with Rosie is a favourite of mine, especially the descriptions of the Gloucestershire vally in which he grew up, so there is a real feeling of walking somewhere familiar, even when exploring this landscape for the first time.
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This is a photograph taken in Wyndham Park in Grantham. The autumn leaves of a beech provide a frame for the Hand and Apple sculpture which commemorates Isaac Newton’s connection with the town of Grantham – he went to school at King’s Grammar which is just beside Wyndham Park, and lived at Woolesthorpe Manor just down the A1 from the town, where the famous apple tree can still be seen today.
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These two majestic field trees stood like sentries on either side of the gateway. This was on a walk in Somerset which explored an ancient landscape full of both recent history – including an old lead working now rewilded as a nature reserve – and ancient history including a number of monuments, burial mounds and barrows.
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This photograph was taken on a farm track footpath which leads to Muston Meadows, an old haymeadow now designated as an NNR. I wanted to try to capture the essence of mid-December in the Midlands – to me that is muddy walks, early sunsets and skeletal trees.
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This photograph was one of several I took of bark patterns in a veteran oak we were climbing to look for potential evidence of bats. This deadwood can be very stable, remaining as a component of the tree for decades after the wood has died, and the patterns etched into the wood represent to the various conditions and experiences which the tree has gone through.
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This photograph neatly finishes where this summary started – back in the mountains above Freiburg. This was taken just before Christmas where we had the magical opportunity to rise up above the clouds and see the sun setting. The fog and cloud was rolling up the valleys, obscuring and revealing treelines, and the sunset coloured the fog in pinks and oranges.

New Year Plant Hunt – Grantham 2017

The first few days of New Year can be a little underwhelming – Christmas is over and it’s a long old drag until springtime. But there’s still colour and life out there and the BSBI‘s annual New Year Plant Hunt is a great way to experience this, as well as contribute your data to a national recording scheme. Everybody is welcome to get involved – even if this is just spotting a daisy on the lawn or gorse flowering by the roadside on your way to work!

Last year I found 44 species flowering in Grantham so I thought I’d cover a similar patch this year and see what I could find!

I started just before sunrise on a Bank Holiday Monday – thinking this would be a good time to explore the roads and walls around the centre without too many funny looks! It was just below zero and as slippery as an ice-rink when I started but the road down from the Railway Station was a very fruitful location with yarrow and daisy visible before I even got out of the car! A total of nine species were flowering here against the wall including two non-natives – Oxford ragwort and Guernsey fleabane. The sun strikes this wall first thing in the morning which might explain why this spot was good for flowers persisting through the winter.

Around Grantham town itself, I found a few more species including feverfew, smooth sow-thistle and common chickweed. A wander around the Sainsbury’s carpark also provided me with a flowering grass – annual meadowgrass.

Down by the River Witham, the earliest blackthorn I know was in flower – just a couple of individual flowers amongst the bare branches – along with frosted white deadnettle and the winter heliotrope.

Onwards through St Wulfrum’s churchyard, I picked up shepherd’s purse flowering in the sunshine against the stone archway of the South Entrance. Sun spurge was another species growing next to a pedestrian crossing – this is a species whose flowers look so much like leaves that you really do need to know to lean close and check in order to realise they’re in bloom!

A few naturalised species were added to the list as I continued around Grantham. These were not growing in gardens but were self-set, often finding little niches in walls or at the edges of pavements. Such species flourish in urban settings, where there are plenty of gardens to escape from and little niches of soil and warmth in which seeds can germinate and bloom. This collection includes yellow corydalis, greater periwinkle and Michaelmas daisy.

One advantage of carrying out a Plant Hunt on your home-turf is visiting locations where you have seen species flowering in the lead-up to Christmas. In this case, a carpark towards the north of the town had a colony of gallant soldier – a member of the daisy family with large yellow centres and white petals. Red deadnettle and ox-eye daisy were also flowering on the walls here, along with a stalwart of the NY Plant Hunt – the beautiful ivy-leaved toadflax.

I walked up to the Hills and Hollows above Grantham to finish – picking up a few individual dogwood flowers amongst the unopened buds, along with red campion and, of course, gorse to finish. The saying goes ‘when gorse is out of flower, kissing is out of fashion‘ and this held as true as always with several bunches of yellow flowers brightening the spiky shrubs.

Nine kilometers and three hours later, my total count this year was 30 species – not too bad but lower than any of my counts from last year. The beginning of 2016 was preceded by unusually mild weather and many late-season species were still hanging on. This year by contrast, we have had a few good frosts which I know have finished off a few plants which were in flower up until that point including yellow toadflax and common mallow. This trend for lower numbers seems to be mirrored by others who have completed counts across the midlands and east, but we will need to await the full results to fully understand the picture for this year.

A new feature of the hunt this year is the excellent New Year Plant Hunt App which you can download here – this is so easy to use on a smartphone when you’re out hunting, or equally easy to enter the data into when you get back home. I uploaded all of my data onto the app and even popped back on to edit a record the next morning, when I realised I had made an error in the ID of one species. It works off the back of the iRecord system and is a good introduction to an excellent tool for keeping and submitting biological records when you’re out and about.

Linked in with the app, is a brilliant Results website which updates the records on the fly, showing the locations where hunts have been completed and tallying up the most commonly recorded species to date. So far, daisy is in the lead with groundsel running a close second, but with a day to go yet, there’s all to play for! Get out and see what you can find – Happy Hunting!

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A montage of all the flowers found and photographed for the New Year Plant Hunt around Grantham in 2017

2016 in Amphibians

Ecological consultancy work gives lots of opportunities to get up close and personal with reptiles and amphibians. One of our roles is to help our clients develop receptor sites, containing ponds, refuges, hibernacula and terrestrial habitat prior to site clearance. We then capture the reptiles or amphibians from the development site and move them to their new habitat to ensure that the populations can survive and grow into the future.

These are a few photographs of amphibians taken during 2016.

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Toads are not protected by the same legislation as great crested newts, but we always take the opportunity to move them to safety. I love how characterful toads can be, especially when you take their portrait!
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Translocating a number of animals at the same time lets you appreciate how variable they are. These are all portraits of smooth newts but the variation in colour is quite significant. To some extent this reflects gender and age, but also the natural variation which characterises any population of animal.
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A selection of toad portraits – these are one of my favourite animals and I wanted to try to capture them in such a way that you can appreciate the individuality of each and every one. The eyes of a toad are always surprising – the rich golden, reddish colour is quite beautiful if you get down to their level to appreciate it!
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A great crested newt from the translocation – these have much darker skin than the smooth newts as well as a much rougher texture. These animals spend much of their lives on land foraging for invertebrates during the summer or hibernating in a safe sheltered place during the winter. In the springtime however, all of the adults return to their ponds to breed.
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Palmate newts are relatively infrequent in the UK and certainly not common near to me. We went away for a few days around Easter and I nipped out to look in the ornamental pond behind our cottage at night to find a good population by torchlight. This male is showing off the distinctive back feet which help to identify this handsome creature from the superficially similar smooth newt.
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Three juvenile amphibians from a translocation check – from left to right is a great crested newt, a smooth newt and a toad. These were all released into their new receptor site where there are refugia and habitat to allow them to develop on into adults and help to sustain the population into the future.

If you are interested in commissioning amphibian surveys in the midlands, you can check out Landscape Science Consultancy’s website here!

2016 in Wildflowers

Every week this year, with just one or two exceptions, I’ve taken part in the excellent #wildflowerhour on twitter where people across the UK share their sightings for the week between 8-9pm each Sunday – an excellent way to draw a weekend to a close.

Many of these photos made an appearance at some point but this is a run-through a few of my favourite wildflower finds or photos from 2016. The absence of orchids can be explained by a whole post all of their own from earlier this week – take a look here!

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Tree flowers are some of the first to make their appearance each year and this set shows a few of these in silhouette against a white February sky. The photo on the left is the male catkins of alder whilst the right two images are the female flowers of two different willow species. Many of these early tree species have both male and female flowers. Some, such as the hazel and alder, have both male and female flowers on the same tree. Others, such as these willows, have male trees or female trees which produce just one type of flower.
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An early-morning walk in May treated me to these frosted flowers in Muston Meadows NNR. The sward was still low, with many of the larger, later meadow species such as salad burnet and meadowsweet still to appear, and these smaller early-summer flowering species were the stars of the show. Clockwise from top left are bulbous buttercup,  cuckooflower, green-winged orchid and cowslip.
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Spring sandwort is a member of the campion family and I came across these cushions of flowers at a disused leadworking site in Derbyshire. It is quite a scarce plant across the UK but frequents these old spoil heaps – such is its connection that  leadwort is another name for this flower. I like that this species has specific habitat preferences which are far from the pristine grasslands and woodlands which are associated with the conservation of many species.
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This is another example of where a closer look rewards the curious – this is a view down the spadix of an arum lily – also known as Lords and Ladies. This reminds me of one of the plasma balls I used to see in Science Museums when I was younger!
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It would be difficult to exclude bluebells from this selection as the sight of a good bluebell wood, with wood anemone, primrose, violets and yellow archangel mixed in, is one of those sights which is profoundly uplifting after a long winter. Many species begin to flower before these, but the bluebell season marks a threshold between the sparsity of spring and the abundance of summer which is just on the horizon. I like the lightness and delicacy of this shot – taken at the Notts Wildlife Trust site – Treswell Wood.
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Another photograph from Treswell Wood. I’m not sure I’ve ever seen such an abundance of greater stitchwort than at this site this year – glades were filled with the snow-white flowers of this native woodland specialist.
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This is another photograph from Muston Meadows NNR – this time at sunset. I liked the moody, hazy feel of this photograph with buttercups and grass flowers against a darkening sky.
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This set was taken on my birthday this year – we were camping just below Old Sarum outside Salisbury and woke up early to climb the old hillside and watch the sun rise. The fields and landscape below were misty and I liked the contrast of these wildflowers against the sunrise haze.Clockwise from top left is dock, cow parsley, nettle and bulbous buttercup.
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Smooth tare is a member of the pea family with these tiny white flowers with delicate purple veining. Easily overlooked in a grassland sward, I like the way that they stand out against the soft greens of the surrounding vegetation when you get low enough to appreciate them!
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I took a treacherous walk up to the Hills and Hollows on the outskirts of Grantham one very stormy lunchtime in June – somehow these ominous heavens never opened but gave a nice opportunity to capture some common wildflowers against a dark sky. Clockwise from top left is white campion, poppy, white clover and hogweed.
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I have a real soft spot for arable weeds – modern farming works hard to eradicate competition from arable fields but many species still find a way to brighten a dull monoculture. This flax field was quite an amazing sight in itself with its array of ripe seeds, but flecked throughout where the glaucous green and delicate mauve of fumitory which scrambled up and through the crop.
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Harebells are common in more acidic conditions but can pop up in a variety of habitats. I found them for the first time in the grasslands above Grantham this year, nestled in amongst the Hills and Hollows, but this photo was taken on the Laurie Lee Wildlife Walk in Slad this autumn. You have to get down low to see inside these little flowers, and when i did, I was surprised to find two invertebrate residents settled in for the day. I guess a downwards-facing bell makes perfect cover for a snail to wait until nightfall!
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The Longshaw Estate in Derbyshire comes brightly to life with the purple wash of heather in August and this photograph was taken on one of my favourite walks which cuts across this land. The bell heather was frequented by the beautiful heather colletes bees which emerge to coincide with this floral abundance each year, feeding on the flowers and making their nest holes in the sandy soils beneath the roots.
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Another from the Peak District – this time the coconut-scented flowers of gorse against a backdrop of heather. The old saying goes, ‘when gorse is out of flower, kissing is out of fashion’ because you can find this species flowering pretty much anytime throughout the year. There are many fewer pollinators at work during the winter, but when a warm day awakens a hibernating bumblebee, it can be fairly sure of a nectar source amongst a stand of gorse.

 

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Whilst I doubt this will be my last wildflower photo of 2016, it seems a nice place to end – a common mallow flower with ice crystals taken on my walk to work in December. A bitterly cold morning, the white edging brought a nice contrast to the deep purple of this flower. Many wildflowers of late-summer will continue flowering until the first hard frosts of winter finish them off so this might perhaps signal the end for this individual!

If you are interested in commissioning botanical surveys in the midlands, you can check out Landscape Science Consultancy’s website here!

2016 in Orchids

A third 2016 Review Post – this time some of the orchids I’ve seen over the last year. Few of these are particularly rare species, but there is something undoubtedly ‘other’ about the orchids. A number of these photos are from reserves which are designated partly for the populations of these orchids, but also included are a specimens which I’ve discovered in my local area including my favourite find of a roadside colony of bee orchids just on the edge of Grantham.

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Early purple orchid is, as the name suggests, one of our earlier flowering species. And purple! It is often found in woodland settings and flowers around the same time as the bluebells. This one was photographed in the dappled sunlight at the edge of Treswell Wood, a Notts Wildlife Trust site in North Nottinghamshire.
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Another early flowering species is the green-winged orchid. This species is so named for the green veins on the sepals which you can see in this image. These were taken at Muston Meadows – a National Nature Reserve designated partly for its populations of this species. You can see the frost glistening in the background – this was just after sunrise in May when there had been a ground frost the night before and many of the orchids had keeled over beneath the ice. A visit the following week showed them all restored to health luckily – a species which elects to flower as early as this needs to have some resilience to late frosts!
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This is another image of the green winged orchids at Muston Meadows with the early morning blue sky in the background. I wanted to try a slightly different angle from the normal shot and was quite pleased with the result of this one.
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This common spotted orchid was taken at Ufton Fields – a Warwickshire Wildlife Ttust site. Visiting a number of sites where you know a species can be found has the advantage of helping you get your eye in for where particular species like to grow. After visiting several such reserves I found a new (to me certainly) colony of common spotted orchids on a small patch of marshy rush-filled grassland next to the Grantham Canal this year. I was walking past when the general ‘feel’ of the habitat reminded me of the locations where I’d seen these orchids and, sure enough, there they were!
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Early marsh orchid is quite a robust, chunky flower with prominent bracts visible in between the individual flowers on the flower spike. I took this photograph at the Cambridgeshire, Bedfordshire and Northamptonshire Wildlife Trust site – Fulbourn Fen. I liked the background of buttercups to contrast yellow against the soft pink of the orchid flower.
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The greater butterfly orchid is always a very exciting find – this one at a Warwickshire Wildlife Trust site where only a relatively small number of flower spiked were apparent. The cream-coloured flowers open from the bottom upwards so this flower spike has only just begun with many buds still to break further up the spike.
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The lesser twayblade is one of the most inconspicuous orchids you could imagine – the light green/cream flowers blend perfectly in with the grasslands in which they grow and are easily overlooked, or worse stepped on, if you’re not paying attention! There is a beauty in the subtly though, and something special in spotting a flower which doesn’t ask to be noticed which makes the discovery even more rewarding.
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Man orchids are another rarity but which are found at a number of local sites including good populations at Barnack Hills and Hollows NNR. Such is the rarity of this species that some sites cage the flower spikes to avoid accidental damage and keep off the rabbits which would otherwise nibble at the flowers. You can see the mesh in the background of this image.
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This bee orchid was taken after a heavy afternoon rain shower at a Warwickshire Wildlife Trust reserve. I love the way that the raindrops and dampness add vibrancy to the colours – always a great time to get out and see wildflowers, provided you get back under cover before the skies open once more!
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I spotted this perfect pair of bee orchids flowering right beside a roundabout on the outskirts of Grantham. I myself had driven past this spike many times without realising it was there, and I wonder how many other people would be as amazed as I was to find something so beautiful and intricate in such a mundane location. A further search found another ten or so flower spikes in the grassland across the road.
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To complete the insect-related trypic after butterfly and bee, we have the beautiful little fly orchid. This is a tiny species and so easy to overlook even when you are hunting specifically for it. It is often found in woodland rides and this one was at Bedford Purleius – a  National Nature Reserve just off the A1 near Peterborough. The first spike took a little time to find, but once you get your eye in, there are many more flourishing along the woodland edge.
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This is a species I had never seen before this year – I was driving between two survey sites and had a little time so I called in at a Warwickshire Wildlife Ttust site near Birmingham Airport and was treated with this heath spotted orchid.
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This is not only the first time I have seen a white helleborine, but the first time I had seen one of the helleborine species at all! The white helleborine is woodland species and commonly found beneath the cover of beech – this means they have a largely southern distribution but are also found in other locations such as this one outside of Cambridge. The flowers barely open much more than this but they have a beautiful architectural arrangement of leaves and flowers.

 


 

 

2016 in Butterflies

I thought I had probably seen my last butterfly of 2016 when I started to put together this collection for 2016 – only to see a peacock flitting around on my lunchtime walk yesterday. Sunny weather or disturbance can bring out some of our hibernating species during the winter so the ‘season’ never truly ends!

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This green-veined white butterfly was feeding on the greater stitchwort flowers in the Nottinghamshire Wildlife Trust reserve Treswell Woods earlier this year. A closer view reveals the yellow pollen from the anthers on the legs of this butterfly which will likely be transferred to the next stitchwort flower on which the butterfly alights. This act of pollination is the reward which the flowers get in return for their nectar they provide.
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This is a close-up photo of a orange-tip butterfly – I love the chequer-board green eyes. This individual was resting with folded wings on a white flower and their camouflage really is superb in this pose – until their open their wings and reveal those gaudy orange wing-tips from which they derive their name.
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This year was a good one for dingy skippers – I was lucky enough to see them at a number of different sites.This was at a Warwickshire Wildlife Site – Harbury Spoilbank – where grizzled skippers and green hairstreaks are also to be found. This is a male and a female pre-mating in the low vegetation.
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Another skipper from another Warwickshire Wildlife Site – this time at Ufton Fields. This is the grizzled skipper, a tiny little butterfly which could easily be mistaken for a moth at first glance as it zips past. This one is feeding on a speedwell flower.
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This is one of the UK’s rarest species – the wood white taken at Ryton Woods in Warwickshire. I took a walk around the rides hoping to spot this species and was just about to give up hope when this one appeared, bouncing along the edge of the rides. Their flight is slow and delicate and the males spend much of their time patrolling in search of females on the vegetation. I followed this one a while and got just one or two photos before he fluttered on over some dense scrub away from the path and out of sight.
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This is a common blue butterfly perched on one of their favourite food plants – the bird’s foot trefoil. I like this photo as you can see the curled tongue protruding. This long tongue straightens when they feed, allowing them to reach nectar from deep within the flowers and to access resources that many insects cannot.
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This photograph of a common blue was taken at sunset at Muston Meadows NNR in Leicestershire. The butterflies settle on vegetation such as this, always seemingly adopting this downwards-facing pose, at the end of the day. This one tried several locations before finding a position it was happy with. The butterflies spend the night roosting like this, ready to awaken when the temperatures rise again in the morning.
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This orange tip was displaying the colouration which gives the species its name, although it is only in fact the male butterflies which have orange tips – the female butterflies have black tips. Orange tip butterflies favour flowers of the cabbage family and this individual alighted and then departed several non-cabbage flowers before settling and drinking deep from these dame’s violets growing along The Drift SSSI.
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I think it’s only fair to include a raggedy painted lady butterfly in this collection, considering the journey these butterflies make to get here. This was taken feeding on hogweed along the Grantham Canal – many miles inland from the sea across which this butterfly had flown to get here. This species does not breed in the UK which means that every individual you see will have migrated from the continent.
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I rather liked the angularity of this photograph of a marbled white in a slightly unusual pose. I do not know of a site local to me where these butterflies are found, but they occur in good numbers in many grassland sites in Warwickshire where I have spent some time this summer. These butterflies seem to favour thistles – newly emerged individuals will alight temporarily on all sorts of purple flowers – from ragged robin to orchids – until they get their eye in for the thistle flowers they are seeking.
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2016 wasn’t a good year for the small tortoiseshell with low numbers recorded through much of the summer. I saw a few more in the later months, such as this one feeding with several others on a patch of thistles in a pasture field. Nettle and thistle often come to dominate patches of higher nutrient ground within pasture fields. The imago – adult butterflies – love the thistle flowers, and their caterpillars feed on nettle, so this combination of species is ideal habitat for small tortoiseshells.
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A red admiral to finish – these are one of our few species which hibernate along with small tortoiseshell, comma, peacock, speckled wood, clouded yellow and brimstone butterflies. This individual had found the patch of naturalised Michaelmas daisy in the grassland above Grantham in October, along with a range of bees and hoverflies – and was taking advantage of the nectar source and autumnal sunshine before finding somewhere dark and stable to fold its wings and await the spring.

 

 

 

Three trillion answers to a single question

On the last day of November, the decadence of summer is long gone. The flowers and leaves, butterflies and bees were so easy to take for granted until autumn and then winter take them from us. But every season has its own treasures and the wind-whipped, leaf-stripped trees are on glorious display across the countryside.

One thought which always strikes me when I see winter silhouettes, is how amazingly adept trees are at achieving their structure in an infinite number of ways. A line of trees planted together will each grow to maturity in a different form. The form will be dictated by species, by sub-species perhaps, by individual genetic variation, phenotypic plasticity to adapt to the conditions, defense responses to biotic attack or abiotic damage such as frost and wind, competition avoidance strategies and more besides. There are as many answers as there are trees to the simple question of how to be upright. And whilst the tree is growing, the process is never complete as the tree grows adaptively to maintain its balance and posture with continual interaction with their environment.

One recent 2015 study put an estimate of 3 trillion on the number of trees in the world. The mind boggles to even begin to comprehend the variety and scale which this number encompasses, but here are nine examples from my walk near Muston Meadows at dusk this evening.

2016 in Bees

As the winter is drawing in and the buzz of bees and other insects is sadly lacking from the soundscape of the countryside, I have put together a collection of images from throughout 2016 to remind me of warmer times!

Each photograph below is captioned with a little information about the species and the story behind it. I have learned a lot about bees and their enemies and allies this year, but it has served only to show what a vast amount more there is to learn about these vital creatures.

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This bumblebee queen was one of the first I saw in 2016 – back in April she spent the night tucked up on the bud of a bluebell. This was taken in the evening after a late-afternoon rain-shower which presumably drove her to cover. She was still there first thing the following morning, but soon took to the wing again after the sun hit the flowers.
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Blackthorn is one of those quintessential spring flowers and a local patch made a great lunchtime walk to look for early mining bees – in both the general and the specific sense as this little bee is actually called the Early Mining Bee – latin name Andrena haemorrhoa.
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This foxy little creature is another of the mining bees to appear early in the spring – this one is the Tawny Mining Bee – latin name Andrena fulva. This is quite an easy species to identify and one of the first solitary bee species I was able to ID with confidence.
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The nomad bees are a group of solitary bee species which parasitise the nests of other bees by laying their eggs in them – a behaviour known as cleptoparasitism. They are quite wasp-like in appearance and can often be found hanging around nesting burrows of the mining bees waiting for their opportunity. This one was taken at Treswell Wood, a Nottinghamshire Wildlife Trust reserve but I’m unfortunately able to identify it beyond Nomada sp.
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Like the nomad bees, this bumblebee seeks to use the nests of other bees to rear its young – however its tactics are a little more brutal. The dark wings and the lack of a pollen basket on the hind leg identified this as a cuckoo bee – this species mimics its host and then takes over the nest, killing the queen and establishing itself as the new queen. The workers then work to raise a new generation of cuckoo bees. There are several species of cuckoo bumblebee – this one is Bombus rupestris, the Hill Cuckoo Bee.
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We have red mason bees – Osmia rufa – nesting in the ‘bee hotel’ in our garden each year, but more exciting still is the ‘mud mine’ I found down at the local river Witham in Grantham. The mason bees have used this same spot for at least the last two years, arriving in good numbers to gather materials which they use to create mud-wall partitions between nest cells, and then to cap off the nest tube when they’ve finished. There is extensive evidence of their workings as many bees are taking material from here. Here you can see a mason bee with a rolled ball of mud clutched in its mandibles, ready to fly back to its nest site.
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This is another species of mason bee which I spotted in our garden for the first time this year – the much smaller blue mason bee – Osmia caerulescens. This bee spent a good period of time on our garden table in the sunshine, occasionally making short excursions to check out gaps in the construction, perhaps with a view to finding a nest site. Like the red mason bee, this species nests in holes such as dead wood and plant stems.
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This one is not a bee but one of their ‘enemies’ – an ichneumon wasp called Ephialtes manifestator. The wasp paid a visit to our bee hotel and used its long ovipositor to lay its eggs within the sealed nesting tubes within. Creating habitat for the bees will inevitably bring in the other members of the ecosystem which has developed alongside these species and the range of parasites which exploit bees is extensive!
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This tiny little bee is a harebell carpenter bee – Chelostoma campanularum. This species uses a range of native members of the harebell or campanula family, but they seemed quite excited by the ornamental campanula in our garden!
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The leafcutter bees are so named because they snip circles of leaves to create the nest cells – using it as a material in a similar way to the mud walls used by the red mason bees. They were often to be found foraging on the ornamental flowers in the garden, and can be quite aggressive to other bees, even nipping bumblebees with their leaf-cutting mandibles when they try to share their flower!
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I spend a fair few summer lunchtimes watching this colony of wool carder bees – latin name Anthidium manicatum – at the local park in Grantham. The females use the ‘wool’ shaved from plant leaves as a material for their nest tubes and furry plants like lamb’s ear are perfect for them. They also feed from the flowers of this species and so a patch of lamb’s ear is a great place for a male wool carder to hang out and wait for females to turn up. The larger males would patrol the flowers, resting occasionally on a leaf, and mate with any females who turned up. They would also aggressively chase away any other bees who strayed into their patch – larger bumblebees included – often physically grappling them off the flowers.
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I’m going to sneak these two in even though they are not bees but rather bee mimics. They are two different variants of the same hoverfly species – Volucella bombylans. The ‘bombylans‘ in the species name refers to the genus of the bumblebee ‘bombus‘. The variant on the left is mimicking the white-tailed bumblebee whilst the individual on the right is mimicking a red-tailed bumblebee. Both of these variants were photographed on the same shrub during a site survey in Cambridgeshire this summer.
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Different bees have different preferences for flowers based on their physiological characteristics – for example bees with a long tongue will use deep flowers whose nectar is further back as this is a resource unavailable to shorter tongues species (unless they snip the ends to steal the nectar but this is another matter!) The preference for flowers can also change throughout the day or the season to reflect the relative provision of different flowers which may produce more nectar at a particular time. I watched this common carder bumblebee – Bombus pascuorum – moving between different members of the pea family along the Grantham canal including meadow vetchling, tufted vetch and common vetch. It would pass by other flowers, always seeking this same family and often showing me flowers I had not spotted within the undergrowth!
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One final ‘enemy’ of the bees for this collection – I spotted this unusual looking fly skulking around on the scabious flowers in the garden where numerous bumblebee workers were foraging. It seemed to have sought out the most favourable species for these bumblebees and was waiting to attack its victim. This is a species called Sicus ferrugineus and has a particularly distasteful strategy – it lays its eggs into the bumblebee where the eggs develop, pupate and overwinter in their victim.
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I was rather taken with these little heather colletes bees – Colletes succinctus – this year. We came across them whilst walking in the peak district in September when the heather was in full flower. After spotting them foraging as we walked, we began to come across aggregations of holes in the sandy soil of the paths which were the nest holes of this species and a little patience allowed us to watch them coming and going. They appear late in the season, to coincide with the vast abundance of heather flowers in these habitats.
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A September walk in Slad revealed these little Lassioglossum sp. bees on many of the grassland flowers – scabious seemed a favoured food source but they were also using ragwort and others. They are such characterful little bees especially when you catch them face-on with their long antennae.
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Into November, the queen bumblebees began to appear again. These queens will overwinter to set up next year’s nests in the springtime. The density of flowers in the wider countryside decreases significantly as the season turns to winter, but ornamental species such as these naturalised Michealmas daisy can be an excellent late-season nectar source for queen bumblebees, especially on a sunny afternoon.
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Perhaps my favourite bee photo of 2016 – this bumblebee feeding on Verbena in my parents’ garden during their Open Garden event this year.